Cardiovascular (Heart) disease 43.8%
Unfortunately he says, medical doctors (with whom many of us entrust our lives), study disease, not health, and therefore know little on the vital subject of nutrition and its effects. And this despite several important findings on the subject reported in medical journals. We will look at those findings soon. The reason for the doctors' ignorance in this area: "Their curriculum includes little or no nutrition, lots on pharmaceutical drugs, and nothing about the effects of processing fats and oils on human health." 49
On reading this huge book on fats and oils, one is amazed that there is such ignorance about their importance. And yet it is a fact that some years ago, the Paris press had a screaming headline:
"MARGARINE STANDS INDICTED"
and the London Daily Express echoed:
"THE FAT IN YOUR FRYING PAN CAN BE DEADLY!" 50
And yet we are still eating the stuff. Only always trying to eat less fat, and feeling guilty when we do.
"FAT!" These days the very word makes us shudder. Because we've been conditioned to think of fat only as the substance which prevents the slim and gorgeous person we really are, from coming to the fore. Or that it will damage our hearts.
But FAT is essential to the health of every cell in the body, all "sixty-three trillions" of them. Fat is basic to life.
Here are some of the vital functions of fat in the body:
We simply must have some fat in the diet. Erasmus, one of the world's foremost experts on the subject, claims that we need 15 to 20% of the diet in fats, good fats. It should be clear that if we do not get the fats we need, we are in trouble. But any old fat just will not do. It's got to be the right kind of fat or fats to do all of the above. 52
In the 1960s, under the unfortunate impression that it was fat, any and all fat, that caused arteriosclerosis or clogged arteries and heart attacks, Nathan Pritiken, the engineer we looked at briefly in the chapter on Cholesterol, suffering from those worrying clogged arteries, devised a diet in which the fat content was reduced to a minimum of 7% of the calories. He also believed in vegetable oils or polyunsaturates, as available on the market.
Through his conviction and the force of his personality, thousands of people became devoted to what came to be known as The Pritiken Diet, which in combination with plentiful exercise was supposed to bring us all to the promised land of healthy happy slimness, clean arteries and longer lives. It did clean out the arteries, but it did not bring long life. Pritiken, poor fellow, now has the cleanest arteries in the cemetery. He died too young, but he did not die of a heart attack. He contracted a form of cancer and took his life. According to Erasmus, "Diets low in fats are deficient in essential fatty acids which inhibit tumor incidence and growth." 53
Dr Wayne Martin, scientist and health researcher, writing in the Townsend Letter for Doctors, tells it `like it is.': "The problem of preventing heart attach deaths and cancer deaths are intertwined both for good and for bad. While most doctors are telling one and all to have polyunsaturated fats in the diet to prevent deaths from a heart attach, there is evidence that they are actually increasing cancer deaths among us." 54
A recent report in the extremely respectable Archives of Internal Medicine (1998:158:41-45) confirms Dr Martin's thesis. Polyunsaturated oils may increase a woman's risk of breast cancer by 69%; while olive oil, a monounsaturated fat, may actually reduce this risk by 45%.
For one of the most worrying discoveries of all has been that processed polyunsaturated oils are immunosuppressive. That is, they suppress the immune system, our defence against cancer. What is more, they are even more immunosuppressive than the drugs designed for the purpose. This means that they prevent our immune systems from doing their job. And their job is, of course, to prevent cancer and infections. This was reported in Britain's most influential medical journal, the Lancet in 1978. 55 Does your doctor know about it?
What this means is that it has been known since 1978; it has been recorded in Britain's foremost medical journal, that polyunsaturated fats and oils, those lovely safflower and sunflower oils in the clear glass bottles, will dampen down the immune system. And yet who has acted upon this knowledge? And which governments have ensured that all of us would know and have a choice in what we eat or don't eat?
Dr Joanna Budwig of Germany, pioneer scientist in the world of fats in relation to health, and seven times a Nobel prize nominee, said this concerning fat and disease:
"Anatomically speaking, heart infarction observation studies reveal nothing abnormal in the picture except for solid fat, which encircles the normally lean heart muscle, confining and disturbing the heart's action." 56 That is, on autopsy after a death from sudden heart failure, everything looks normal, except for the fact that the heart muscle is surrounded by solid fat. And, as we have noted, this type of heart failure was almost unknown before 1926. 57 She also speaks of `isolated fat' found in rheumatic tissue, that is, in painful muscles. 58
Worst of all perhaps, the invention of the electron microscope has made it possible to see that the only difference between cancerous cells and healthy cells is 'isolated fat'. 59
It seems that when fats are rejected by the body tissues, they are isolated and deposited in places where fats are not normally found. It is easy to see why people have in the past, and even now, blamed "fat" for all our problems. But there is far more to it than that.
In an earlier time, each family or group of families produced its own food and ensured that it was both nourishing and safe. Later, people got their fats from butter in the local dairy or their oil from someone who grew olive trees or other oil-bearing plants.
The oil was simply pressed out as needed ("cold-pressing"). The housewife or other person, would pick up the supply daily or every few days, because it was highly perishable and people could taste the difference between fresh butter or oil and the rancid or dangerous kind. That is, rancid fats are carcinogenic, cancer-causing. Or sometimes there would be an `oil-beater' going from door to door with the fresh product. Either way, once obtained it was stored in a covered ceramic jar, kept in a cool dark place and quickly consumed. 60
In this manner each part of the world developed its own special oil, depending on what was available, e.g. fresh coconut oil is the oil of choice in the tropics. And on these natural oils, there were very low rates of heart disease. Similarly, the Eskimos, who, despite the fact that their natural diet includes enormous amounts of saturated fats from animal sources, have very low levels of heart disease. The Japanese also have low rates of heart disease with their natural diet. But today, when these groups give up their traditional diets and move to `the West', or take up Western foods, their rates of heart disease, cancer, and so on, gradually become the same as for the rest of us. 61
Our food troubles began when we ceased to be agrarian people and began to live in cities. Even so, up until 1920 most of the fats eaten were saturated and came mainly from animal sources – butter, lard or tallow. 62
But as cities got bigger and bigger, the problem of feeding the inhabitants was eventually resolved by what today we call Food Technology. That is, the food technologists devised ways of preserving and presenting food so as to keep it long past the normal `shelf life' of foods. And therein lie many problems. Particularly in the area of fats and oils.
After 1920, the manmade, highly refined fats came in, the margarine, the corn oil, the sunflower and all the other vegetable oils. And since that time, cancer deaths have increased threefold, and deaths from heart attacks thirty-five fold. 63
Once again, it is not FAT per se that is killing us, but the kinds of fat we are eating.
In 1929, the most important parts of fats and oils, that which are known as Essential Fatty Acids (EFAs), were discovered by two scientists, Mildred and George Burr. They are called "essential" because they cannot be manufactured in the body, but must be taken in regularly in the form of fats or oils, just as certain vitamins, minerals and amino acids are essential for human health, and must be taken in regularly . 64 The chemistry of these Essential Fatty Acids (EFAs) is complex, but suffice it to say that they are of many kinds and that each kind serves different purposes in the body.
They are essential for human health. But recent surveys have shown that 80% of the U.S. population is deficient in these Essential Fatty Acids. 65
More over inadequate EFA intake, among other causes, may contribute to Attention Deficit Disorder in children and/or Hyperactivity. 66 There is no reason to believe that the percentage would be much better in New Zealand.
Laboratory animals deprived of EFAs will exhibit the following problems:
The Essential Fatty Acids are considered so important that in 1977 the World Health Organisation in Geneva, with agreement of the United Nations and the FAO in Rome, made the following recommendation:
"In the light of present knowledge, it seems prudent to recommend that future lines of research follow these requirements for EFAs, that it is desirable that they are not lost by commercial processing and that the problem must be addressed by law." 68
That is a very polite way of saying that manufacturers of processed fats should be controlled by law. And that in fact is what has happened in Europe. It has not happened in the English-speaking countries.
As far as studies go, apart from the Pritiken diet which reduced fats in the diet below 10%, we have not done experiments on humans wherein EFAs were completely eliminated, for obvious reasons.
However, an article in the Sunday Star Times, July 12, 1998, would dispute this: Camille Cosby, American educator, claims that the University of Texas at Galveston "conducted a controversial study on primarily black babies from 1956 to 1962. The researchers withheld an essential fatty acid from the babies' formulas that humans need for the growth of the whole body and nervous system ... several of the infants died during the course of the study." 1 must add that many other infants are in this terrible situation as a result of ignorance rather than through deliberate experimentation. 69
It has been found that infants fed formulas low in EFAs become irritable. They also develop large appetites and dry scaly skin. When sufficient EFAs are added to the formula, the infants' appetites reduce and the skin clears rapidly. 70
Another expert in the field, is Dr Michael Crawford, formerly head of the Department of Nutritional Biochemistry at the Nuffield Institute of Comparative Medicine in London's Institute of Zoology and now at the Institute of Brain Chemistry and Human Nutrition at the Queen Elizabeth Hospital for Children in London. He has a special interest in the history of evolution, the development of the human brain and degenerative diseases. Dr Crawford has found that there are two kinds of fat, as far as our bodies are concerned: the fat for storage and the structural kind. 71
Stored fat is the stuff we need for energy; and these are the fats that become highly visible, not just in the bay window in front, but also in diseased tissues at autopsy. It is generally the stuff the body is forced to store because it cannot do anything else with it once it has used what it needs for energy.
In terms of our evolution, Dr Crawford believes that it was structural fats, or the Essential Fatty Acids, in the form of a fish diet, that made possible Homo Sapiens, through the development of our complex brains and central nervous systems. 72 So if we were told to "eat up your fish; it's good for your brain," they were absolutely right.
It is this structural fat we need for all the vital tasks in the body we have noted. And the different fatty acids all provide differing building materials for different jobs in the body. For example, the outer sheaths of the nerves need saturated fats (from animal products) for rigidity, while it is unsaturated fats (from vegetable sources, but not the commercially made hydrogenated variety) that are needed for the softer linings of the arteries. 73
Of the whole body, the brain has the greatest need for the right kind of fats. 70% of our brain cells were acquired by us during fetal life. And the acquisition of brain cells continues at a slower pace throughout life. It is therefore of the utmost importance that pregnant and nursing women have the right kind of diet. What they need are the Essential Fatty Acids, the EFAs. "Many authorities recommend that pregnant and nursing women consume fatty fish two to three times weekly and/or add a minimal amount of flax seed oil to their diets to insure adequate intake of EFAs. " 74
(Web Editor's Note: However, there is the great danger of high level of merucy in fish these days, with possibly the exception of sardines from the mediterranean and wild alaskan salmon).
And as we have noted, "good' fats should be around 15 to 20% of the calories in our diets. But studies have shown that "American mothers produce milk that often has only one fifth to one tenth of the Omega 3 (the fish-oil fatty acid) content of the milk that well-nourished, nut-eating Nigerian mothers provide their infants." 75
In March of 1991, the Mayo clinic reported on a study of nineteen "normal" pregnant women on "normal" diets, a study which found all were deficient in the EFAs. 76 (It is also said that premature infants need more of the EFAs from fish oil for it is they who are most at risk in their brain development.) Unfortunately, manufactured infant formulas are almost completely devoid of EFAs, as they contain the fairly useless and damaging refined products. In fact Dr Joseph G Hattersley believes there is an association between these marketed infant formulas and a percentage of crib deaths (SIDS). 77 (Hattersley, "Crib Death: Sudden Infant Death that isn't sudden at all," Townsend Letter, May 1996, 62-65)
According to Dr Finnegan, "There are many serious consequences of generation after generation having diets deficient in an element essential for normal development of the nervous system." These dangerous and abnormal fats are not, of course, the only possible cause of SIDS. We will come to another later.
We have in our time already seen the effects of not consuming sufficient EFAs and taking in the wrong kinds of fats. We have seen it in the clogged arteries and heart disease so common today. And in the rise of Multiple Sclerosis we are already seeing signs of nervous system deterioration. For everywhere in the world the rise of M.S. follows the rise in heart disease, Alzheimer's disease and mental ill health.
A lack of EFAs is also believed to be implicated in arthritis and cancer, other degenerative diseases and skin diseases. With the majority of people these days being deficient in the EFAs, we must therefore ask the question: What is happening to our children's brains? Not to mention the rest of us? "The frightening news is that for the past three generations ... the majority of the people in North America have not been given adequate nourishment for complete brain development." 80 One can assume that this would also be true of New Zealand and Australia.
But it is not only that EFAs are essential to health in many ways, it is also that one is never really satisfied unless there is a certain level in the diet. For, as noted, we should have 15 to 20 percent of the calories or kilocalories in fats and oil, of the right kind. 81
Here is what happens to conscientious dieters: Under the current misinformation about the role of fats in our health, they cut their fat intake back to the minimum. And in addition they are probably not getting the right fat when they do eat it. They try very hard not to cheat. But their bodies, desperately needing the EFAs to do the thousands of things they are needed for, keep screaming out, "More food!" "More food!" So the hapless dieter keeps getting the message in the form of "I'm hungry! I'm hungry!"
So they gorge on anything but fat in the attempt to stem the "I'm hungry!" message. But no matter how much they eat, so long as the EFAs are missing they will still essentially be hungry, a situation reminiscent of the mad hatter's tea party. And they cannot be healthy. It is likely that most reducing diets fail because there is not enough fat in them.
A most interesting point is that when animals are to be fattened for market, the fat is eliminated from their diets, and cereals are greatly increased." 82 But this is precisely what we usually do when trying to lose weight! Fat actually burns off fat.
To look at what has happened to our fats since the 1920s, first we must consider the desire on the part of manufacturers to make as much money as possible. To do this they use the cheapest materials available and the cheapest processes. They then are in a position to price their products well under that of the equivalent "natural' product and thus to drive it out of the market. 83
But food is not "a product", or should not be. It is essential for health, for life itself.
And here is what has happened to our precious EFAs:
In order to produce fats and oils which will not age, go rancid, "go off", food manufacturers subject them to enormous heat, sometimes up to 1000 oF. During this intense heating, hydrogen is bubbled through the oil and forced under pressure into the boiling fat molecules, as one account would have it, "in the presence of nickel, aluminum or other heavy metal." 84 A small amount of these metals are retained in the fat, and are, of course, toxic to the human body.
Through these and other processes the oils are "hydrogenated", "deodorised", "winterised", "bleached", and "refined". And under these processes, especially the enormous heat and pressure, most of the naturally-occurring nutrients we need are lost: almost all of the vitamin E, lecithin, beta-carotene and the Essential Fatty Acids. For there is no way these fats and oils can be subject to such heat and pressure; so altered without losing vital nutrients." 85 (And most of these are the nutrients we need to prevent heart attacks and cancer.)
Once the fat or oil is "hydrogenated" it will last indefinitely. The margarine is packaged attractively in plastic tubs; the oil is placed in clear glass or plastic bottles. And if they remain just so, sitting in the kitchen in all weathers, just what will happen to them inside our bodies?
In particular, the harder fats, the margarine, will remain firm in the body also. Scientists who have studied these effects speak of the `stickiness' of margarine in the body. This `stickiness' makes for `sticky blood platelets', `thick' blood, one of the worst initiators of heart disease. And that is why so many of us are on drugs to `thin' the blood. They also instigate fatty deposits in the arteries, liver, and other organs. They change cell membranes for the worse by making our cells more permeable, so that undesirable substances can penetrate. 86
Worst of all, the process of hydrogenating fats creates entirely `new' molecules forced into shapes they were never designed to be in. 87 They are, in effect, poisonous to the body. And the name of the monster which emerges from these fortune-making fat factories is Trans Fatty Acids. `Trans,' the name for these Frankenstein fats, was a term dreamed up somewhere near the laboratory. It is yet another example of the subversion of the language for commercial reasons. For `trans' implies positive things like `transformation', `transfiguration'. Whereas in truth the fat has not been transformed, it has been deformed.
Trans Fatty Acids are, in fact, deformed monsters let loose upon the world. There were no such things in existence before modern food technology. And therefore our bodies were not designed to cope with them. It is as though these deformed molecules are maverick keys that do not fit anywhere. Worse, just as we can sometimes get the wrong key in a lock but it will not turn, they do this, and then prevent any good fat molecules from gaining entrance and permitting the body to function normally, or as it would with real molecules. And as we have seen, the metabolism of fats affects each and every organ in the body. 88
Thus it is that the TFAs have been found to be a major cause of heart disease and cancer, for they do not fit in the body at all. 89 And what the body has to do with substances it cannot use is "stash `em in the arteries," and elsewhere.
It is said that early in the Second World War the country of Norway had almost all of its margarine stocks confiscated by the Germans as part of the `spoils of war'. In this case the booty was not well named for it would never spoil. And by the end of the war Norway had one third the rate of heart attacks it usually did. But after the war the margarine came back of course, and gradually the rate of heart attacks increased to the normal rate. 90
An important study, confirming that margarine, and refined cooking and salad oils, contributes to heart disease and cancer, was conducted in the Netherlands by two Dutch scientists and in 1990 was reported in the most esteemed of all American medical journals, The New England Journal of Medicine, 91 also in the Journal of Lipid Research in 1992. 92
In April 1995, a Danish Nutrition Council report commenting on this and other studies, suggested that it is the trans-fatty acids in margarine that are responsible for arteriosclerosis, rather than the much-maligned saturated animal fats.93 In Europe today, trans-fats are severely restricted. Some countries permit no more than 0.1 percent in food products. In contrast, margarines in the English-speaking countries may contain up to 30 to 50 percent. The only margarine that is used, or permitted on the European continent, is a much more expensive version made of coconut and olive oils, quite different in food value from the stuff permitted in our English-speaking countries. In fact in Denmark and Holland, our kind of margarine is outlawed, and anything with TFAs in it must have the levels on the label. 94
But perhaps the most conclusive study on the effects of margarine and hydrogenated oils was carried out at the Harvard School of Public Health where 85,095 nurses were followed for thirteen years. The study was actually set up to prove that margarine and hydrogenated vegetable oils were safer for the heart! But instead they found the complete reverse. Those who consumed the highest intakes of TFAs had the highest rates of heart disease. Reporting in the most prestigious of British Medical Journals, The Lancet, Dr Walter Willet, MD concluded that the Danish and the Harvard studies had together established an "unequivocal causal relation between the TFAs and the risk of heart disease.'' 95 Even the most conservative Harvard Health Letter, referred to Trans-fats as "the new enemy. " 96
Following the publication of these accounts in both of the world's most influential medical journals, and elsewhere, studies so emphatically damning of the consumption of margarine and hydrogenated oils, there is absolutely no excuse for the cardiologists who advise Heart Foundations around the world, or the average doctor, to continue exhorting people suffering from heart disease to eat this dangerous rubbish. For the effects on people of this `advice', it amounts in my view to criminal negligence.
These were not the first warnings about these dangerous fats and oils. As early as 1956, The Lancet cautiously warned that "...coronary artery disease becomes in part a preventable disorder, but at the cost of a complete revolution in our present-day dietary habits. The hydrogenation plants of our modern food industry may turn out to have contributed to the causation of a major disease. " 97 It has been a warning ignored for 42 years by governments and most doctors. Wayne Martin: "The threefold increase in our consumption of hydrogenated polyunsaturated fat has over 90 years resulted in a 35 fold increase in heart attack deaths and a three-fold increase in cancer deaths.' 98
The problem is that today it is difficult to avoid the TFAs. Their presence in the diet has increased fifty-fold in the last 20 years. If you eat bought cakes, biscuits, cheese made from hydrogenated fats, commercially fried foods, most breads, and a thousand other products, there it will be.
Dr Mary Enig, research associate in the department of Chemistry and Biochemistry at the University of Maryland has studied Trans Fatty Acids for decades. She has analysed 600 foods for their TFA content, and after all those foods and all those years she concluded that Americans eat 11 to 28 grams of TFAs a day, or up to 20% of their daily diet. 99
As if all this were not enough there is something else. In order to get that lovely `butter' colour, there is a yellow dye added to margarine. For this, they often use Cadmium which is a toxic metal, alien to the body. What is more, Cadmium interferes with the absorption of Zinc, a mineral vital to our health, especially to the immune system. 100
We need to buy fresh butter, and oils that have not been heated, that is, we need "cold-pressed" oils in dark glass bottles. For even the best of olive oil will in time become full of dangerous free radicals in a clear glass bottle.
But perhaps the worst blow of all, Dr Finnegan claims that some unscrupulous health store owners simply buy cheap processed oils from commercial sources and put their own "cold-pressed" label on them. And naturally they cost more than the supermarket variety. So that even those of us aware of the need for cold-pressed oils can get `conned' into buying more worthless dangerous oil. 101
It looks as though in the absence of any serious policing in this highly critical area, we are all of us out on that vast and dangerous highway which is Food Consumerism, `playing chicken' all the time with most of our purchases.
And when I say "playing chicken" I mean quite seriously that we are gambling with our lives, or the length of them. But we must not fall into the error of blaming those who make these fats for the market. They are producing something people are led to believe they want and need, and make fortunes out of doing so. This is the way of the "free market place." They cater to our love of ease. And they have so much money left over after producing their toxic fats that they can spend a king's ransom on `image-making' and on lies to tell us how good margarine is for us. "Staying Alive!" is the phrase that comes to mind.
That these atrocious lies are permitted in the face of overwhelming evidence that refined fats and oils are killers, will be one of the marvels of the next century. And they will surely have a great deal to marvel at. They will surely marvel at the fact that the knowledge of the dangers of trans-fats has been around for many years, but that the fat processors have succeeded in keeping it quiet.
With hopefully more enlightened food laws and practices in the future, we will then be looked back upon as incredibly naive and ignorant to have accepted this unbelievable exploitation for most of our century "How can it have happened?" will be the question asked. For just as we think of people who used leeches to bleed the sick as pathetically ignorant, so they will regard us. In fact leeches, and `bleeding,' in a small way, actually make a lot more sense than eating TFAs. 102
The fault in the English-speaking countries must truly lie in the failure of `medical science' to show sufficient interest in nutrition and to make known the facts about fat, and with governments who do not care enough about the health of their peoples to act in this regard, as have some governments in Europe.
As we noted in our introduction, we have the technology to put a man into space and to watch him walk on the moon. But we could do nothing to prevent that very man having a heart attack at 43 . 103 It is my belief that that heart attack could have been prevented.
I did not plan to take so long to tell this story. But it is not a straight-forward one. To summarise:
The evidence clearly shows that we can indeed prevent this epidemic massacre of innocents if we will just look at it and act upon it. For the truth is very simple. All we have to do is choose the right fats and exercise care in their preservation and consumption and we can enjoy better health, that is, if we are able to get hold of them.
We must do it. Moreover, the future of the human race will depend upon the brains and the health of our children. It is therefore imperative that there be an awareness that our bodies are designed to utilise natural foods, foods that contain nutrients, foods that spoil. If they do not "go off" it is time to start worrying about them. In other words, a longer shelf life for foods will diminish our shelf lives.
For the right fats to eat, see the section below entitled "What fats and oils are safe to eat?".
Vitamin E reduces the stickiness of platelets, 800 i.u. per day.
Other nutrients for the heart: Magnesium; B6, garlic, onions, fresh ginger, LCarnitine, cayenne.
WHAT FATS AND OILS ARE GOOD TO EAT?
Extra Virgin Olive oil is not recommended, unless you get it straight from the olive grove, as 70% is toxic 'lampante' oil, or even diluted with other oils, even GMO oils. See Extra Virginity, The sublime and scandalous world of olive oil.
RECOMMENDED DAILY INTAKE OF COLD PRESS OR EXPELLER PRESSED FLAXSEED OIL 107
1/4 Teaspoon for non-nursing infants 1 to 6 months
I /2 teaspoon for non-nursing infants 6 to 12 months ( Web Editor's Note: Nursing infants get all they need in a predigested form. Formula babies have to work out how to digest formula. In Dr William Sears excellent "The Breastfeeding Book" he reports the research of Dr Kettwyler. By looking at primates and other large animals, it appears that the natural age for weaning for humans should be from 2.5 to 7 years old. If you think about it, teeth are an essential part of digestion. Therefore, babies should not be weaned fully until they have ALL their teeth, which is often not until 2.5 or 3 years old. There are so many benefits to both the baby AND the mother of breastfeeding, that it is a crime that we do not do it for longer (if at all). In Europe, it is quite common for babies to be breast fed to five years old).
1–2 teaspoons for 1 to 2 year olds
2 teaspoons for children over 2 years
1–2 tablespoons for adults.
(Web Editor's Note: Try mixing it into yogurt, or as part of salad dressing).
46. N.Z. Heart Foundation information leaflets, dated August 1996; received February, 1997
47. Udo Erasmus, FATS THAT HEAL; FATS THAT KILL, Alive Books, B.C.Canada, 5th Ed, 1995, 8
48. Erasmus, as in 47; 3, 7.
49. Erasmus, as in 47; 3.
50. Dr Joanna Budwig PhD, FLAX OIL AS A TRUE AID AGAINST ARTHRITIS, HEART INFARCTION, CANCER AND OTHER DISEASES, Apple Publishing Company Ltd, Vancouver, B.C., 1994, English Edition, 6.
51. Elaine N, Marieb, HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY, 2nd Edition, Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company, Inc. 1992, 848
52. Erasmus, 210.
53. Erasmus, 210.
54. Feb/March, 1995, 102-4.
55. B .D. Bowmer & E. H. Newsholme, "Treatment of idiopathic polyneuritis by a polyunsaturated fatty-acid diet." Lancet, 18 March, 1978, 583-4.
56. Budwig, as in 50, 3.
57. MacKinnon, Alister U., "The origin of the modern epidemic of coronary artery disease in England,"' Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners, April 1987, pp 174-6, and Finlayson, Rodney, "Ischaemic heart disease, aerobic aneurysms and artherosclerosis in the city of London, 1858-1982," Medical History, Supplement No.5, 1985, 151-168.
58. Budwig, as in 50, 3
59. Budwig, as in 50, 4.
60. John Finnegan, THE FACTS ABOUT OILS, Celestial Arts Publisher, Berkeley CA, 94707, 1994.
61. Finnegan, as in 60.
62. John Finnegan, FATS & OILS: A CONSUMERS GUIDE, Elysian Arts, Malibu, California, 1992.
63. Wayne Martin, "The Miracle of E.P.Oil," Townsend Letter for Doctos, November 1992, 990
64. Dr George Tamari, "To Prevent CHD and Cancer," Townsend Letter, May 1996, 71
65. Judith A DeCava, Townsend Letter, Jan 1997, p.124.
66. Colquhoun & Bunday, "A lack of essential fatty acids as a possible cause of hyperactivity in children." Medical Hypotheses, 1981; 5:673—9; Stevens et al,"Essential fatty acid metabolism in boys with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder." American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 1995;62(4):761-8.
67. Tamari, as in note 64, 72-73.
68. Dr Robt E Wilner, M.D. PhD, THE CANCER SOLUTION, Peltic Publisher Co Inc Florida, 33431, 1994.
69. However, an article in the Sunday Star Times, July 12, 1998, would dispute this: Camille Cosby, American educator, claims that the University of Texas at Galveston "conducted a controversial study on primarily black babies from 1956 to 1962. The researchers withheld an essential fatty acid from the babies' formulas that humans need for the growth of the whole body and nervous system ... several of the infants died during the course of the study." 1 must add that many other infants are in this terrible situation as a result of ignorance rather than through deliberate experimentation.
70. EFFECTS OF FISH OILS AND POLYUNSATURATED OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS IN HEALTH AND DISEASE, National Library of Medicine, National Institute of Health, 1995.
71. Crawford & Marsh, THE DRIVING FORCE — FOOD, EVOLUTION, AND THE FUTURE, Harper & Row, NY, NY, 1989; Crawford, WHAT WE EAT TODAY, London Neville Spearman, 1972.
71. Crawford & Marsh, as in 71.
73. As for note 70.
74. Finnegan, "The Vital Role of Essential Fatty Acids for Pregnant and Nursing Women," THE FACTS ABOUT FATS, Celestial Arts, 1993
75. Dr Donald Rudin, THE OMEGA 3 PHENOMENON.
76. Holman et al, "Deficiency of essential fatty acids and membrane fluidity during pregnancy and lactation," Biochemistry, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, Vol.88:4835—4839, June 1991.
77. Hattersley, "Crib Death: Sudden Infant Death that isn't sudden at all," Townsend Letter, May 1996, 62-65.
78. Finnegan, as for 74.
79. Rosetta Schuman, Townsend Letter, January 1993, 41. Rudin, as for 75.
81. Erasmus, p.210.
82. Finnegan, as for 74, 40.
83. This was the case for several decades. But the manufacturers, having by now captured as much of the market as is possible, the price of margarine has gradually risen till it is now about the same as for butter, at least in N.Z. that is the case.
84. Dr Sherry Rogers MD, Townsend Letter, January 1993, 936
85. As for 84.
86. Dr Alfred H Wertheim, Townsend Letter, Jan 1996, 107.
87. Townsend Letter, Nov 1996 p.13.
88. Budwig, as in note 5, 10.
89. Ann Louise Gittleman, BEYOND PRITIKEN, Bantam Publishing, N.Y. 1989.
90. Townsend Letter, Feb/March, 1996
91. Mensink and Katam, "TFAs and Lipoprotein Levels," New England Journal of Medicine, Vol 328, #7, August 16, 1990.
93. Clinical Science, April 1995, 88 (4);375-92.
94. Townsend Letter, Oct 1993, 936, & Dec 1993, 1212. (Chances are our coconut and olive oil margarine has been heated as for other margarines.)
95. Channing Laboratory, Harvard Medical School, Lancet, March 6, 1993, 581-5.
96. Summer, 1994.
97. Lancet, April 28, 1956.
98. Townsend Letter, August/September, 1992, 716.
99. Enig, M.G. et al, "Fatty acid composition of fat in selected food items with emphases on trans components,"JAOCS, Vol.60, No 10, October 1983, 1788—95; New York Times, Oct 7, 1992, 1.
100. Townsend Letter, June 1992, 530.
101. Finnegan, as in 74.
102. Leeches actually produce four active substances which counter different diseases. Bleeding causes our body to make fresh blood.
103. Rosetta Schuman, Townsend Letter, January 1993, 41, "Our space technology helped him walk on the moon, but our health technology could not prevent him from developing heart disease."
104. Advice from a NZ Heart Foundation leaflet dated August 1996: "Eat less fat, especially saturated fat." "Use small amounts of margarine instead of butter and other animal fats." Margarine is being recommended for children. Clearly the cardiologists who advise the Heart Foundation are not reading their own medical journals.
105. Parthasarathy S, et al, "Low density lipoprotein rich in oleic acid is protective against oxidative modification: implications for dietary prevention of atherosclerosis." Proc Nat! Acad Sci 1990;87: 3894-8.
106. "Coconut Oil," Townsend Letter, June 1995, 155.
107. Dr John Finnegan, "The Vital Role of Essential Fatty Acids for Pregnant and Nursing Women," Townsend Letter, December, 1995, 52-53