Clean Coal Technology: CENFuel

The incredible Turner-Lloyd Process

That Creates Clean Coal and

Turns Coal Toxins into Enormous Profits


20X20-white-spacerEnergy is a critical component of industrial progress for our civilization. Countries rely on the energy sources that are internal to their landmass. So regardless of pollution or efficiency, the government of a country will almost always prefer energy sources that already exist in their country, to other sources that they must import.

For over a hundred years, countries have utilized coal to create energy. The downside to using coal for energy production has been the pollution that it creates when burned. The carbon in the raw coal is burned for energy while the leftover components of the coal (sulfur, alumina, silicon, etc) become gaseous pollutants and solid “coal ash” byproducts.

Wouldn’t it be great if someone could figure out a way to remove the sulfur, aluminum and other “contaminants” before burning the coal? Then the only byproduct of the burning would be carbon dioxide and water and we could use or sell the “contaminants” on the market?

In 1986 two men did exactly that. Max Turner and Bob Lloyd, both Australians, created a process, U.S. Patent 4,780,112, described as “A Method for the Continuous Chemical Reduction and Removal of Mineral Matter Contained in Carbon Structures”. To the astonishment of the energy world, Bob Lloyd created a way to use an acid to dissolve the minerals in raw coal, remove those minerals from the carbon and to replenish the original acid using another cheap compound so that the process could continue at low cost. No one had ever done this before.

When implemented, this would make existing coal fired power plants almost pollution free and much cheaper to run. But there is more. Much more.

In addition, the ultra pure carbon can be ground into tiny particles the size of the particles injected into oil fired plants. These coal particles are so pure that they are non-abrasive and can be used as a direct replcement for oil. Pollution free coal, not pollution causing oil.

But possibly the most important thing for developing countries is that this process works perfect on graphite. Developing countries are prevented from progress in their industry by multinational corporations only allowing a certain amount of steel production to happen in those countries. And they do that by limiting the amount of graphite electrodes they can buy for their steel furnaces. The Turner-Lloyd process would make it possible for every country to produce as much steel as they wished. Free from the control of the cartels.

It was 1995 and I was a consultant for the Airlines industry and living in Sydney, Australia. I was privleged to become friends with an amazing engineer / entrepreneur and businessman named Max Turner. For almost two years I worked with Max Turner and his Asian Energy company assistants planning the IT system for his upcoming plants and corporate headquarters.

China was to be the initial implementation site for this technology. This was an obvious choice because of the massive amount of coal used by China.


Ten years after working on this project, at the peak, from 2005 through 2011, we see China added roughly two 600-megawatt coal plants a week, for 7 straight years. And according to U.S. government projections, China will add yet another U.S. worth of coal plants over the next 10 years, or the equivalent of a new 600-megawatt plant every 10 days for 10 years. With CENFuel, all these plants could be pollution free and the minerals that would have caused pollution could have been sold for hundreds of billions of dollars.

While working on this project I was not being paid a salary. I was paying my own expenses. This was the first time in my life that I had the opportunity to be involved in an environment-saving project from the ground up. I knew about all those people in China that were going to die from diseases caused by the coal pollution and I wanted to be involved in saving them. I was also allowed to become a “seed capital” investor in the new “Asian Energy” company. I invested everything that I had saved up until that date as well as everything that I could borrow. I felt that it was imperative to help the world get the CENFuel process. I was sure that the stock from my investment would increase and that I would be repaid for my efforts.

During this time I had attended several meetings with Max Turner where he described the future plans for CENFuel. I decided that I wanted to construct CENFuel plants in places that would be considered impossible by normal project planners. I didn’t know where I wanted to construct them, I just knew I wanted to do it. Licenses for an industrial process such as CENFuel were going to be sold for millions of dollars upfront as well as royalities for all products produced. I asked him if I could have a license and he said that if I could raise the money, he would give me one as a gift. I was elated.

And so the CenFuel project kept moving forward as we were looking for the announcement and the Initial Public Offering (IPO) on the Australian stock market. A few days before the official date, I received word that the stock offering was postponed. Then it was announced that it was cancelled. I later was told privately that Max Turner was threatened by certain people up “high” and that they said “it would never happen” (it could have been in the government, banking, coal industry or someone else. I was never given names). Someone decided that the CenFuel public offering would not be allowed. I eventually returned to the USA in 1997 with no money and ended up filing bankruptcy.

In 2006, almost 10 years after being involved with the Cenfuel project I came up with the idea that the CENFuel process could be made more profitable if, instead of selling off the byproducts, they could be processed and have “value” added to them. I contacted Max Turner and renewed our relationship. He advised that the offer he made for a CENFuel license was still good. He explained how disgusted and disappointed he was with American businesses. He described how he was approached by some large companies in the USA to build a plant for CENFuel production. There was alot of talk, celebrity supporters, lawyers, lobbyists and even the State of Virginia was involved.

During the design phase he found out that the only thing the big companies wanted was the secret keys to the technology itself. They had no intention of keeping their part of the bargain. It was all a scam to get his technology. He outsmarted them and managed to keep them from stealing the keys to CENFuel.

Later I found a non-profit group in India that I thought might be interested in this type of project and and told Max about it. He thought it was a great idea and sent the non-profit trust a letter. The following information is from that letter. I felt that a single plant devoted to graphite purification would provide the cash flow and proof of work required to justify the expense and to allow the Trust funds to scale up the project to all the coal plants in India.


10 August 2006

Address of the trust


Dear Sir,

The enclosed information package is an executive summary of the Turner-Lloyd CEN (Clean Energy Technology) process and how it might be valuable to your projects for helping India. It describes CEN Technology, its application to graphite and coal processing and a general idea of the benefits of using it.

I am Michael Relfe, an American citizen and currently living in the state of Florida. My background includes 25 years in the IT industry as a technical developer in the IBM world as well as SAP. I hold a degree in computer science and am a graduate of United States Naval Nuclear Power School.

As you know, I hold the license for the Turner-Lloyd CENTechnology process for the entire country of India as well as for the western half of the United States of America. CENTechnology is a manufacturing process that extracts all impurities from carbon based ores, leaving a 99.87% or more pure end product. It is a closed system and does this inexpensively and without producing pollution. This process can be applied to graphite ore or raw coal.

CENTechnology applied to Graphite

In the case of graphite ore, inexpensive graphite in the range of $200-$500 per ton is processed at a cost of approximately $40 per ton. This results in an end product that is superior to synthetic graphite used for graphite electrode manufacture. Ultra pure graphite is essential to make electrodes in the steel making industry. It would sell in the $3000 per ton range (or more) worldwide. In addition, it could be sold less expensively to Indian manufacturing companies to free them from dependence on foreign suppliers. A single plant with a rating of 500,000 tons per year would have the ability to purify over 50% of the world production of natural graphite.

Graphite Flake @ 80% Purity
Ore Cost Per ton $400
Cost of Processing per ton $40
99.9% Pure Graphite Market Price – $2500 ton (conservative)
500,000 TPA CENGraphite Plant Cost – $US 120 million

RatingOf Plant Tons-Year Ore Cost(US$) Total/OreCost PerTon(US$) Tons PureGraphiteProduct Value ofProduct(US$) Profit(Million US$) Plant CostPayback Time(Months)
10% 50,000 440 22,000,000 40,000 $100,000,000 78 18.5 mo
20% 100,000 440 44,000,000 80,000 $200,000,000 156 9.23 mo
30% 150,000 440 66,000,000 120,000 $300,000,000 234 6.15 mo
40% 200,000 440 88,000,000 160,000 $400,000,000 312 4.61 mo
50% 250,000 440 110,000,000 200,000 $500,000,000 390 3.69 mo
60% 300,000 440 132,000,000 240,000 $600,000,000 468 3.07 mo
70% 350,000 440 154,000,000 280,000 $700,000,000 546 2.63 mo
80% 400,000 440 176,000,000 320,000 $800,000,000 624 2.30 mo
90% 450,000 440 198,000,000 360,000 $900,000,000 702 2.05 mo
100% 500,000 440 220,000,000 400,000 $1,000,000,000 780 1.84 mo

The above figures are based on the ability to obtain graphite of a sufficient quality and quantity to operate the plant at the desired rating.

Graphite ore native to India is commonly 10% graphite, 60% calcite and 30% quartz. The above described plant using only Indian graphite and operating at 100% capacity would produce 50,000 tons of CENGraphite with a value of $120,000,000. The ultra pure byproducts would be marketable as well.

CENTechnology applied to Raw Coal – Producing Industrial Carbons

In the case of raw coal, ore that is commonly burned to fuel coal fired power plants is treated using the CENTechnology process. This removes all non-carbon components of the coal and results in a carbon product of 99.87% purity. The non-carbon components of the coal become marketable products such as silica, aluminum, iron and several rare metals that can be sold worldwide. In addition, 99.87% pure silica could be further manufactured into pure elemental silicon for fabrication into solar cells.

Indian Coal – 40% Carbon – 40% Ash – 20% Misc
Ore Cost Per ton $20
Cost of Processing per ton $40
Total coal used – 1.2 million tons per year
500,000 TPA CENCarbon Plant – Cost – $US 120 million

CENCarbon Cash Flow Projection

Product Tons-Year ValuePerTon TotalValue (US$) Coal +ProcessCost Profit(Million US$) Plant CostPayback Time(Months)
IndustrialCarbon 520,000  $300 $156,000,000      
SiliconDioxide  306,800  *****  *************      
Alumina  101,400  $272 $027,580,800      
Iron   79,560  $50 $003,978,000      
Total     $187,558,800 72,000,000 115,558,800 12 mo

Silicon Dioxide can be processed into elemental silicon by the use of an Electric Arc Furnace (EFA), commonly used in the steel making industry. The elemental silicon is further purified by a floating zone process furnace. The end result is a product called polysilicon. It sells for $25,000 per ton at market. The Silicon Dioxide from one CENCarbon plant (308,600 tons) could be processed into roughly 143,173 tons of elemental silicon. Sufficiently purified it would be worth $3,575,000,000 (3.575 billion) per year. This would require an EFA processing plant with a capacity of 35 tons per hour (35 tons X 16 hours per day X 250 days per year). This would be one small sized plant along with the necessary number of floating zone furnaces. Estimate cost is less than $US 90 million.

This silicon could then be grown into mono-crystalline silicon boules, from which wafers for solar cell production could be produced. University estimates are that a 10 mile X 15 mile area filled with solar panels could supply the complete electricity needs for the USA. I speculate that it could do the same for India, thus freeing India from the need for daytime use of coal fired power plants.

CENTechnology applied to Raw Coal – CENFuel

In the case of raw coal, ore that is commonly burned to fuel coal fired power plants is treated before combustion using the CENTechnology process. This removes all non-carbon components of the coal and results in a clean carbon fuel of 99.87% purity. Burning this fuel produces no pollution. The only plant outputs are heat, carbon dioxide and water. The non-carbon components of the coal become marketable products such as silica, aluminum, iron and several rare metals that can be sold worldwide. In addition, 99.87% pure silica could be further manufactured into pure elemental silicon for fabrication into solar cells. In addition, 99.87% pure silica could be further manufactured into pure elemental silicon for fabrication into solar cells (see above).

Please note that the ultimate goal of a CENFuel plant is to allow a coal fired power plant to operate pollution free at substantially less cost due to savings on maintenance, reduction of down time and an increase in efficiency from 35% to 55%. One CENFuel plant can be built to supply 1 power plant.

Indian Coal – 40% Carbon – 40% Ash – 20% Misc
Ore Cost Per ton $20
Cost of Processing per ton $40
350 Megawatt Coal Fired Power Plant
Total coal used – 2.6 million tons per year
500,000 TPA CENFuel Plant 1 – Cost – $US 120 million
500,000 TPA CENFuel Plant 2 – Cost – $US 80 million

CENFuel Cash Flow Projection

Product Tons-Year ValuePerTon TotalValue (US$) Coal +ProcessCost Profit(Million US$) Plant CostPayback Time(Months)
CENFuel 520,000  $60 $031,200,000      
IndustrialCarbon 520,000  $300 $156,200,000      
SiliconDioxide 613,600  *****  *************      
Alumina  202,800  $272 $055,161,600      
Iron   159,120  $50 $007,956,000      
Total     $250,517,600 156,000,000 94,517,600 25.392 mo

Note – The same 99.9% pure carbon product is sold at two different prices depending upon use. A power plant cannot afford to pay the market rate for ultra pure carbon. By subsidizing the price charged to the power plant we eliminate power plant pollution and double the production of silicon dioxide, thus doubling the amount of possible silicon.

Note – A coal fired power plant requires a minimum of two CENFuel plants to provide for 24 X 7 operation. One is plant operational. One is plant backup. The backup plant does not need to be idle. It can also process coal.

Note – The Silicon Dioxide from two CENCarbon plants (613,600 tons) could be processed into roughly 286,346 tons of elemental silicon. Sufficiently purified it would be worth $7,158,000,000 ($7.15 billion) per year. This would require an EFA (Electric Arc Furnace) processing plant with a capacity of 70 tons per hour (70 tons X 16 hours per day X 250 days per year). This would be one medium sized plant along with the necessary number of floating zone furnaces. Estimate cost is less than $US 130 million.

Notes on plant construction

Plant construction estimates do not include other systems that are required to allow the plant to perform as a business. An additional 20% of the plant cost should be available for these requirements. These include but are not limited to the following:

Land for CENTechnology plant construction
Land for bulk product storage
Land for Water Plant
Land for Sewage Plant
Land for Acid Production Plant
Bulk product storage buildings/modules
Building – Maintenance Areas, Vehicle Storage
Building – Training School, Cafeteria, Office Areas
Building – Housing for Workers, Child Care Facilities
Building – Electrical Distribution Center
Building – Storage Areas
Building – Security, Communications, Datacenter, Hospital
Water Plant
Water Storage Tanks
Sewage Plant
Power Generation Plant (if local power is insufficient)
Additions to railway to provide direct access to the plant

Proposed Terms:

As the CENTechnology licensee for India I have the ability to sublicense the CENTechnology process for any number of projects, limited to India and with the approval of the owners.

Industry standard investment packages commonly specify that Investor groups provide 100% of the funds required for any project in return for 25% of the company stock. However I believe that a more equitable arrangement would provide the Trust with 48% of the company stock, with the remaining shares owned by the CENTechnology owners and myself.

Note that this is a technology license. The CENTechnology is owned by the Turner Family Trust and is not for sale. Further, it must be implemented with the utmost security precautions due to its proprietary nature.

I will act as the Chief Executive Officer of any corporation formed for any CENTechnology related project in India or the Western USA. I will not be the project engineer; however I will be closely involved in the entire program. The managing director, management staff and working staff will be comprised ONLY of personnel personally approved by the Trust due to the proprietary nature of the CENTechnology process. It is understood that regardless of the stock distribution percentages, the wishes of The Trust are paramount at all times.

The final plant engineering design, documentation, computer simulations, component sourcing, and other details will be performed in Sydney, Australia near the home office of the Turner Foundation. It may be necessary for the Trust to send 15-25 or more experienced engineers with various specialties to Sydney to assist in the design and learn the systems from the ground up. In addition,SAP certified functional developers will be required to assist in the implementation of the SAP Enterprise Resource Planning System. More personnel may be required in the initial stages. The Trust will choose the appropriate project managers for the plant construction and the SAP implementation and their wishes will be followed.

I have been advised by Max Turner that the project will require advance payments totaling 5% of the project to start the engineering work in Sydney. That is approximately $US 6 million dollars. If the Trust wishes to move forward with this project I would suggest that the Trust create an escrow account, preferably with a reputable Swiss Bank and deposit the funds in that account to “prove” that the funds are available. That escrow account would be under the control of the Trust, the Trust appointed General Manager and myself, as a group. That would insure that all funds are protected at all times. I propose that the trust offer an initial payment of $US2 million, with the remaining funds to be made available at various points during the project development plan. Similar arrangements would be made for the construction phase as well. I believe this would protect the Trust and insure sufficient motivation on the part of contracted engineering firms. All monies spent will be subject to continuous audit to insure that maximum value is being received for every dollar used.

Thank You for your help with this proposal. We would greatly appreciate knowing your decision on whether or not you will be going forward with project.


Michael Relfe


I enclosed the following document with the letter –


Applied to

Clean Coal: The world’s first production of 99.87% pure coal derived fuel for large scale power plant use. Cheaper energy production while almost totally eliminating pollution. US Patent – 4,780,112

CENfuel: 7
CENgraphite: 8
Activated carbons: 8
CENcarbon: 8
Crystalline silica: 8
Aluminium fluoride: 8
Alumina oxide : 8
Heavy metal fluorides or oxides: 8
New Development : 8
Indian Coal Ash Analysis 9
COAL AT USD $20 M/T 13


Although much has been written about CENfuel as a fuel for power stations, it is most versatile and can be utilised and used in units large and small. The following indicates the many categories in which CENfuel can be accepted for use in units employed within industrial, military and domestic fields.

AIRCRAFT TURBINE: C130 U.S. transport aircraft
Small combustion chamber – speed in mil. secs.
C130 turbine tested with CENfuel


Easier to operate larger than smaller units
CENfuel size for C130 = 5 microns
Larger gas turbines can be 100 microns
Larger micron preparation reduces CENfuel cost.



Combustion gas
Boiler to provide dry steam
Fluid bed driers

GAS TURBINE: 25MW initially used within the plant.
Excess (23MW+/-) can be sold to the grid.
System services various function from beginning
Hot gas source
Starts as distillate – then to CENfuel.


Sold as a package bought “off the shelf”
Available immediately or within 90 days
Incorporated within the base load – used at peak
loading times
Initial CENfuel requirements approx. 1 1/2 – 2MW

CENFUEL PLANTS: Environmentally friendly and secure throughout.


To eliminate erosion and corrosion correct blade
design is very important.
Shape and metal used are important.

MAINTENANCE : CENfuel operated gas turbine power stations should
operate 100,000 hours or more without problems occurring
Regular blade inspection undertaken as specified
Several years usage prior to major maintenance
CENfuel being clean reduces maintenance.


In Australia successfully used for pumping lines
Controlled by computer some 1,000 miles away

Erosion on blades is caused by potassium, ash and other component deposits.
Ash turns to gases.
Vanadium / cadmium and other heavy metals create havoc.
Titanium at high melting temperatures create particle wearing.
Distillates cause erosion – can be cured by the
use of additives.
Additives can/do stick to blades requiring water washing.
Additives can change the elements in the oil – causing
softening. Oil refineries can remove all metals from the crude.
Erosion occurs when using heavy oils which still
contain certain particulates..
Heavy oils although cheaper in price are costlier in
time, maintenance and energy lost.
Erosion/corrosion small parts per million – insufficient to harm
gas turbines.


CENfuel with its very low ash level can be targeted at a full range of heat appliances, gas turbines and internal combustion engines. Targets include but are not confined to:

a) Conversion of oil and gas fired boilers.

b) Specially designed CENfuel power generation installations.

c) Heat appliances including:
Steel mills soaking pits – Ceramic industry curing furnaces
Metallurgical industry – Space heating, etc.

d) Fuel for diesel engines (ships, industrial and agriculture).

e) Fuel for presently fired petrol engines (redesign fuel application
of existing engines),

f) Fuel for gas turbines – specific emphasis on combined cycle
power generation installations.

g) Fuel applications for military vehicles- e.g. tanks, personnel
carriers, helicopters.

h) Base feed stock for ethylene plants.

i) Correct selection of feed stock coal- manufacture of industrial carbons.

j) Use CENfuel process to re-cycle valuable materials from alumina pot
line waste.

NOTE: Only Oil Companies Can Remove The Particulates During Processing –
Unless Buyers Have Installed Oil Refining Equipment They Are Unable
To Further Cleanse The Purchased Oil


• The stable nature of CENfuel ensures that it may be transported at ambient pressures without fire risk or explosive events.

• 2mm Cenfuel is delivered for use in vehicles – ships – armoured vehicles – helicopters, etc.

– 2mm CENfuel is delivered for use in gas turbines or diesel engines.

– The 2mm delivery size is a major asset in logistical equations.

– 2mm CENfuel is common to a number of operational units.

– The particles of CENfuel consists of pure carbon with attached volatiles.

• The characteristics of the fuel under combat conditions would be as follows:

• Non-explosive when penetrated by solid round H.E. or incendiary.

• CENfuel will not ignite when contained within sealed holding tanks.

• Air will not penetrate to the centre of the fuel mass.

• Incendiary rounds will cause a charring of the fuel in localised areas
with eventual extinguishing of the incendiary round/s.

• Fuel spill is non-toxic – non-flammable – non-explosive –

• CENfuel can be cleaned by being : swept, vacuumed or shovelled.

• CENfuel acts when contained in out-board tanks tends to act as thermal isolators –
explosive compression buffers – and to a degree – armour protection.

• CENfuel is non-polluting when burned.

• CENfuel when produced under military control would be cost about US$60 per tonne or less – replacing diesel – fuel oil – AV1.

• Studies have commenced on the use of CENfuel in helicopter turbines.

• The above noted CENfuel attributes would enhance the serviceability of military transport under combat / accidental impact conditions.




• CENfuel as a “clean fuel” can be piped over vast distances without “aids” to effect its progress along a dedicated pipeline.

• Piped fuels can be an enormous asset for countries having limited railways and roads. Inadequate infrastructure presents a major problem when considering the movement of fuel needing to travel vast distances from the mines to power stations, or ports for exporting purposes.





• It is essential that CENfuel during transportation is kept clean and dry.

• CENfuel can be shipped in bulk within large ships under a gas blanket.

• At the receiving end CENfuel will be taken off on a conveyor under strict supervision and control for delivery into storage bins or otherwise.

• CENfuel can be off-loaded direct into the CENfuel plant from a charter ship moored alongside the plant. To keep the freighting costs down, a large ship say 30,000dwt is preferable. It is necessary to ensure that the local port can accept this tonnage.




CENfuel: Made from any type of black or brown coal.
(From raw coal) Suitable for gas turbines, vehicles, trains, certain household
equipment, etc.

CENgraphite: 99.9 % high quality graphite. Electrodes, shapes, car brake discs.
(From graphite ore)

Activated carbons:
Activated carbons used by water authorities to cleanse raw water.

CENcarbon: For most industrial carbon needs.

Crystalline silica: Used within the ceramic industry, etc.

Aluminium fluoride:
Used as a fluxing agent and electrolyte in aluminium smelting,

Alumina oxide : For refractories and feed stock of aluminium pot lines.

Heavy metal fluorides or oxides:

Vanadium, mercury, thorium and various rare earths used in a
variety of specialised industries.

New Development :

CENTech has devised a special application for the treatment of
waste electrodes and pot line waste from aluminium smelters.

The process allows recovery of the residual carbon, graphite, contaminating metals and minerals. These normally prevent the disposal of such wastes by conventional means, unless the disposal is strictly controlled within environmental direction.

NOTE: Silica and Alumina are released in industrial quantities.

Example: Indian Coal Analysis – from –

350 Megawatt Plant – Uses 2,600,000 metric tons per year

40% Carbon
40% Coal ash
20% Misc (Hydrogen, Sulfur, etc)

40% of 2,600,000 m/t = 1,040,000 m/t of ash

Indian Coal Ash Analysis – from –

Silicon Dioxide SiO2 59.007%
Aluminium Oxide AL2O3 19.551%
Iron Oxide Fe2O3 15.35%
Titanium Oxide TiO2 03.158%
Potassium Oxide K2O 01.271%
Calcium Oxide CAO 01.151%
Manganese Oxide Mn2O3 00.197%
Zirconium Oxide ZrO2 00.184%
Strontium Oxide SrO 00.028%
Nickel Oxide NiO 00.042%
Niobium Oxide Nb2O5 00.012%
Vanadium Oxide V2O5 00.049%

59% of 1,040,000 m/t will be Silica

Silica (59% of 1,040,000 m/t) = 613,600 m/t +/-

19.5% of 1,040,000 m/t will be Alumina

Alumina (19.5% of 1,040,000 m/t) = 202,800 m/t +/-

Balance of 20% m/t can be sold to merchants specialising in the separation of various chemicals/metals

There is a ready market for both Silica and Alumina they are required within industrial sector of the countries where it is made, and can become an export commodity for those countries.


The following provides immediate answers to many questions which have during the past years been asked by interested parties during presentations.

The following allows those viewing CENtechnology /CENfuel for the first time to fully comprehend the many valuable benefits which are derived by the provision of a clean fuel – CENfuel – and the method – CENtechnology – which is in itself a technique allowing for the utilisation of everything found in coal ash, thereby saving precious resources at present wasted through the burning of raw coal, and the depositing of the burner waste as ash or clinkers into landfills.

Approx. USD60 +/- m/t. ex-plant (raw coal + processing cost) Oil/diesel USD350 +/-
 Ash as low as 0.2%  Indian Coal fired ash 40% – 40% +/-
 Moisture – less than 1%  Indian Coal normally 8% +/-
 BTU 15000 – 15500  Indian Coal fired BTU7996 – 12000
 Sulphur less than 0.01%  Indian Coal Sulphur 0.5% – 5%
 CENfuel = 100% carbon. Particulates/metal oxides removed.  Coal fired plants use raw coal or a “cleaned” coal, normally  washed with limited quantities of particulates removed.
 CENFuel Efficiency 51%-55%  Coal fired 31% – 34%
 Availability of plant 98%  Coal fired approx. 86% +/-
 Pollution greatly reduced or eliminated.  See “Coal fired contaminants”
 No ash – no landfills required  Landfills required. Tonnage as per ash in coal.
 Limited water. Moisture in coal used.  Coal fired water towers require considerable tonnage.
 CENplant 12-18mts. to build. Combined Cycle. Gas Turbine  Plant built in  2 1/2 -3 years.  300MW Coal fired built in 5/6 years +/-.
 CENfuel Plant requires standard equipment. Equipment can be supplied locally when meeting International/NSW Australia standards regulation.  Equipment normally takes longer dates.
 CENfuel dry stored has an unlimited shelf life.
 CENfuel does not freeze.  Coal moisture freezes in the stack, etc.
 CENfuel is non-toxic, flammable or explosive.  Combustion in coal can be hazardous.
 CENfuel is near pure carbon and volatiles.



Cenfuel Meets The Required International Environmental Standard
To 2005 And Beyond.






1.3 MIL. M/T @ $20 /ton 500,000 M/T @ $60 /ton

USD 26,000,000 USD 30,000,000


Added Fuel Cost – USD -4,000,000

35% to 55% Increased Efficiency USD 5,200,000


Savings USD 1,200,000


No Pollution means minimal pollution equipment
Reduced maintenance
Reduced downtime
Minimal waste disposal
Compliance to government regulatory standards without added cost

Conversion to CENFuel saves a power plant $1.2 million per year and provides for pollution free power generation at less cost. The CENFuel is sold to the power plant at a reduced cost. This sale funds an equal amount of industrial carbon to be sold at market as well as the entire amount of marketable by-products.



• Coal fired boilers mechanism change to CENfuel compatible configuration are site specific in their application and ultimate design.

• Large coal fired steam generating boilers are normally of a highly individual nature – each potential change over will be studied individually to ascertain the most cost effective design criteria – capital outlay – efficiency of operation.

• In some cases – a new boiler will be designed and installed to the existing steam plant.

– the change over point is at the steam delivery valve.

– all existing steam plant equipment is left in-situ and connected to the new boiler structure.

• When composite CENfuel firing is considered – the boiler takes on many of the characteristics of a natural gas fired boiler.

– The boilers are smaller.

– Less complex and substantially less capital intensive to construct.

– Scheduled maintenance and overhauls extend the life expectancy of the steam plant – main equipment and auxiliary equipment can be dramatically extended.

– Boiler structures eventually wear out – making the conversion of such units to a CENfuel fired plant an attractive long term proposition.


• Calculate the inherent benefits when using CENfuel as the preferred fuel for coal fired plants.

– Thermal efficiency will be calculated with the total cost of post combustion coal fired “clean up”.

– Elements that must be considered in the equation are :

(a) exhaust gas pollution

(b) bottom ash disposal

(c) high NOx generation


• To achieve the best possible combustion – the coal combustion method requires a continuous charging of the fire box with up to 12% excess air.

• This results in a delayed combustion with high heat levels in the top of the boiler.

• At this point the steam injection is with subsequent loss of efficiency to cool the very “hot spot”.

• The nature of these units is such that all manner of carbon compounds are created along with NOx – CO – CO2 – SO2 – and H2O – which emerge in exhaust gas streams .

• The bottom ash which has to be disposed of contains unburnt carbons.

• The energy loss to arrive at this point is some two thirds of the energy created by the combustion of the fuel.

• The unit efficiency from energy input to the generator terminals will be no greater than 34%.


• The change over to CENfuel will have none of the above adverse effects.

– no bottom ash deposits

– no fly ash

– very low NOx creation

– very low SOx formation

– no water generation in the exhaust stream

– no unburnt particles in the gas stream – therefore –

– no carbonyls and other heavy metal pollutants.


• CENfuel is introduced into boiler at micron particle sizes and as such when injected into the boiler behaves as a synthetic gas stream :

– the particle can be size manipulated directly prior to injection

– maintaining an optimum combustion characteristic for the fuel
tailored to meet the design of the boiler –

– excess air required to combust the CENfuel charge is 2% or less.

• Due to the nature of the synthetic gas cloud created by the even dispersal of the micron sized CENfuel particles in the chamber.


• The use of CENfuel in a boiler mechanism designed for coal without modifications to the boiler – is not a viable option without modifications to the boiler.

• The optimum solution is for a new boiler to be designed to create the steam condition required for the plant – using the design criteria suited to a natural gas fired boiler.

• Correctly designed transformation to CENfuel allows the plant to be fired at the maximum efficiency.

• The new boiler will not require the replacement of all the boiler ancillary equipment.

• When viewing the combustion characteristics of CENfuel as injected into a primary air stream to a boiler the micronized CENfuel acts as a synthetic gas.

• At this point the CENfuel achieves complete combustion of the fuel – provides a designed amount of residual heat.

– CENfuel allows a continual utilisation of steam cycle plants with longer useful life of the boiler.

• If a gas turbine is used in conjunction with the boiler it provides the necessary gas volumes to the boiler.

• Allows for closure of less cost effective plants elsewhere in the utilities inventory.

• Where a straight change over is required – replacement of the coal fired boiler with a boiler designed to operate on CENfuel under optimum conditions – is a relatively simple engineering exercise.

• A new boiler will be 100% designed to create the correct combustion conditions characteristic for CENfuel – matching the existing steam turbine set steam conditions.

• Attractive application of CENfuel for electricity production by the use of modern combined cycle gas turbine engines established in smaller installations – say up to 300MW per site, located at strategic positions on the grid.

• This concept delivers cheaper power with load variance adaptability.

• Gas turbine units can be installed in module configuration allowing an economic operation down to a small % of the full operational capacity.

• It should be noted – that a CENfuel fired boiler does not have the same inherent danger of flame out – as a coal fired boiler.

• When considering the overall capacity of a plant and its logistical position in a supply grid -consideration with regard to outrage or maintenance down time must be made.

• Systems have historically been designed to compensate for this loss of generating capacity by the commissioning of a plant which has a substantial percentage of over capacity time.

• A not inconsiderable cost is borne by the total system allowing for the boiler shut down for cleaning and maintenance – outage can be as high as 15% of availability.


• CENfuel fired boilers availability rated at 95% and better.

– When CENfuel and the total lack of corrosive contaminants and ash deposition are taken into consideration – this claim is supportable.

• CENfuel will be injected into the boiler with a

– total ash of 0.2%

– moisture level of 1%

– removal of particulates prior to combustion, dispenses with particulate control scrubbers and precipitators, and gas formed due to the raising of ash temperature

– Complete combustion of Carbons.

– No Carbon Carryover.


The world needs clean, safe, cheap energy in abundance. The Turner-Lloyd CENFuel process can provide that energy without politics or war and without the influence or domination of multinational energy cartels.

Maybe you or someone in your network can provide the funding, connections or know how to bring this technology to the world. If you think you can, please send me a note describing your ideas.

Thank you for reading this far. Would you please be so kind as to spread this article to as many forums, websites and members of your network as possible. The world really needs an energy source that is pollution free and not a pawn of politics and coal can be that energy source today. 


Michael Relfe

CenFuel – CENTechnology as applied to Coal – Download

CenGraphite – CENTechnology as applied to Graphite – Download

The Turner-Lloyd Process Patent – Download


Copyright ©Michael Relfe 2014 – 3000

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